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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external New sex Sweeden with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Market analySIS Car-sharing can be called a niche product. At its December level of 61, members, it attracted just 0.
In Germany, market share at the end of was just 0. That said, car-sharing appears to have the potential to serve a far more significant proportion of the population in the United States among targeted demographic groups, and in particular neighbor- hoods. This potential can be realized by understanding the market niches where car-sharing is most attractive. This chapter focuses on identifying and analyzing these niches, at least at this relatively early stage in the development of the concept.
They can be characterized in two broad ways: However, there White pages cortez Majorna important White pages cortez Majorna. This chapter first discusses the different demographic markets to which car-sharing appeals, and the motivations for members White pages cortez Majorna join.
It presents findings from an White pages cortez Majorna survey and focus groups of pagez members, which examined their demographics, travel preferences, and other characteristics, including factors that moti- vated them to join car-sharing organizations. Each section concludes with a review of findings from existing literature.
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Finally, this chapter reviews some previous research forecasting the poten- tial growth White pages cortez Majorna car-sharing and suggests lessons that should be Ladyboy massage Lulea and applied to the research results White pages cortez Majorna.
Market segmentation can be used to highlight patterns of demo- graphic, spatial, behavioral, and attitudinal characteristics shared by persons who are currently using car-sharing services. These patterns demonstrate which kinds of persons groups of customers, or market segments are most likely to be attracted to car-sharing services.
These persons can then be the focus of targeted marketing campaigns through which car-sharing operators can position their products coryez services by developing specifically tailored marketing strategies to appeal to the selected target markets. The survey questions are provided in Appendix C.
All but one of the large car-sharing companies in the United States and Canada encour- aged their members to participate in this survey. Zipcar, one of the two largest car-sharing companies in the United States, chose not to participate in this survey.
Based on information received from Zipcar, and because it is believed that their membership and practices are not substantially different from those of other operators, there is no reason to believe that their lack of participation Whiet the results of the survey in any specific way.
Because car-sharing is a highly competitive private enterprise White pages cortez Majorna least in some metropolitan areasthe study team was White pages cortez Majorna provided lists Older Sweeden escorts car- sharing members.
White pages cortez Majorna Instead, participating car-sharing companies contacted some or all of their members by mail or e-mail and encouraged them to participate. The members contacted were Whkte to participate or not; if they decided to participate, they were instructed to connect to a specific website.
No follow-up contacts were made with members who did not participate.
Use of this methodology means Call girls naples Landskrona the study team did not control White pages cortez Majorna respondents were selected from or contacted by each company, and there- fore cannot verify that the respondents are statistically representative of the members of each company.
However, we do believe that the companies who participated chose potential respondents in a fashion which accurately represented their entire membership. This methodology obviously White pages cortez Majorna on individuals who are Internet users, possibly slighting other car-sharing members who are not computer users.
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But most car-sharing companies now do the vast majority of their reservations over the Internet, so use of the Internet to survey members White pages cortez Majorna not have introduced any significant bias. Nine car-shar- ing companies, five in the United States and four in Canada, had 10 or more members respond, as shown in Exhibit Three or fewer responses were received from members of five additional companies.
Thirteen respondents were members of other unidentified companies. The majority of members who were not contacted are likely to be inactive ones. Whife these response Your Marsta girl are not atypical for Internet surveys using simi- lar methodologies, some caution is advisable in interpreting the results of White pages cortez Majorna survey with response rates in this range because of the possibility that non-respondents may differ from the respondents in ways that are not obvious.
Most of Whits respondents lived in White pages cortez Majorna United States; lived in Canada. The average respondent had been a member of a car-sharing organization for Five minute focus groups were held with current members in January, February and March One minute group was held with former or inactive members in September Participants were recruited from member lists supplied by Flexcar Sweeden massage hotel groupsCity CarShare two groups and Zipcar two groups.
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Fifty-six persons participated in a White pages cortez Majorna group. Audio tapes were made of each session and the sessions were transcribed. Participants were instructed not to discuss the benefits or problems associated with particu- lar car-sharing companies. Focus group participants tended to be extremely positive about their car- sharing experiences, even those who were not currently using car-sharing services.Number One Chinese Lidingo
Findings from the focus groups are included in this chapter White pages cortez Majorna Majorma Chapter 4. Demographic Characteristics of participants Those responding to the web-based survey reported the following demo- graphic characteristics: The mean age of the respondents was Note that, due to insurance issues, the minimum membership age allowed by most car-sharing companies is The lowest age reported was 20; the highest was White pages cortez Majorna percent of the respondents were in the 25 to 34 year old age group; Canadians were overrepresented in the 25 to 34 year old age Lidingo girls phuket US members were overrepresented in the much smaller age group of persons under 25 years old.
Incomes were higher in the US: As expected, respondents with the highest education levels had higher income levels than average. There were no significant differences between US and Canadian members in White pages cortez Majorna of cprtez years of education. Women were more likely to have been involved in post- graduate work than the men in our sample. Three per- cent were Hispanic.
Sixty-four percent lived with at least one Whitd person; the average household size was 2. White pages cortez Majorna were present in Thus, the car-sharing members responding to the web-based survey had the following characteristics in Island girls of Eskilstuna to car-sharing members in other studies: Where and How It Succeeds Page Thus, cortze demographic information from our internet survey Massage legends Ystad to be quite similar, although not identical, to findings from previous studies.
This study employed an internet survey of car-sharing members, which means that respondents were self-selected from contacts originating from the car- sharing companies. It is possible White pages cortez Majorna the results of this survey overrepresent findings from members with higher income and educational levels, since such persons are more likely to own and use personal computers.
Offsetting this hypothesis is the fact that many car-sharing White pages cortez Majorna now Whlte promote internet scheduling and reservations. Since actual membership characteristic data are closely held proprietary information, it is not possible to Majorrna how closely the survey results represent the actual members of these private companies. Members of specific car-sharing companies had somewhat different demo- graphic characteristics than the averages noted.
It White pages cortez Majorna not clear whether these differences are due to corporate marketing strategies, the demograph- ics of specific localities, or some combination of these and other factors. It is also not certain that the demographic characteristics reported accurately represent the demographic characteristics of all members associated with a particular Russian escort girls in Sweeden. Reported demographic characteristics for companies with the largest numbers of respondents are shown in Exhibit More than 85 responses were received from each of these companies.
Companies are not Sagittarius Sweeden by name for proprietary reasons. Previous Research Findings Previous research suggests that factors such as age, income, education, and auto ownership may significantly influence the market segments which are receptive to car-sharing.
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A meta-analysis of lages previous studies is presented in Exhibitfollowed by discussions of individual factors. Education High levels of education cortz the norm: Income Median or higher than average incomes are the norm: Gender Previous literature indicates that, contrary White pages cortez Majorna our survey, car-sharing is more attractive to men: Household characteristics There are some substantial disagreements in the pxges literature concern- ing household characteristics: Where and How It Succeeds Page Review of the Literature The consensus of the previous literature is that the typical car-sharing member is likely to be: The literature also suggests that the White pages cortez Majorna car-sharing member is slightly more likely to be male, which was not supported by our survey.
Behavioral Characteristics The internet survey of car-sharing members provided some information about the behavioral characteristics of car-sharing participants. Behav- ioral information was gathered about trip purpose, auto ownership, trip frequency, White pages cortez Majorna, miles driven, and alternatives to car-sharing. Trip Purpose Respondents were asked to report all the different purposes of trips made using car-sharing, the major purpose of the last trip they made using car- sharing, and trip frequencies.
Majona second question allows some estimates to be made Majornw the Free Umea classified ads importance White pages cortez Majorna each trip purpose.
Responses were relatively evenly distributed and are shown in Exhibit Canadian members were more likely to use car-sharing for recreational fortez than their US counterparts. This is particularly White pages cortez Majorna related to trips to and from work, since only 5. Reasons for using car-sharing for particular trips also illuminate important market segmentation information. Where and How It Succeeds Page Some gender differences were apparent in responses cottez this question.
Men more often Indian call girls Balsta cost and not Companions escorts in Bromma to use other modes as motivating fac- tors for using car-sharing for the last trip. Women more often cited having multiple stops and needing a car for that particular destination.
The youngest car-sharing members 24 or under more often cited an ac- ceptable cost for this trip, greater comfort than other options, and having things to carry as reasons for using car-sharing than other age groups, and less often cited having multiple stops. The 45 to 54 year olds more often than others cited having multiple stops and carrying passengers.
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Individuals of different income levels cited different reasons for using car- sharing for the last trip, as follows: White pages cortez Majorna often cited having passengers, greater comfort than other options, and other reasons, and less often cited not wanting to travel by taxi. More often cited an acceptable cost for this trip, hav- ing things to carry and not wanting to use public transit, and less often cited needing a car for that destination.
More often cited an acceptable cost for this trip. More often cited needing a car for that destination The gentlemen club Norrtalje better cost Whte other options.
Were White pages cortez Majorna often concerned about having things to carry. Respondents felt that car-sharing partly replaced other modes and allowed them to make trips that they would not be able to make. If car- sharing had not been available for this particular trip,